Framing is the conscious decision by which the photographer selects what to include in the frame as seen through the view finder on the camera. He/She will take into consideration scale, balance, proportions and symmetry when framing their image. Your decision of what to frame has a significant impact on meaning, significantly effecting the composition as a whole.
Cropping is a post shoot process in which you reduce/trim the perspective to highlight your subject either more specifically, to portray significant meaning, to remove negative space or to create a more balanced image that may not have been achieved in the framing process.
When researching portraits for my assignment ‘A Square Mile’ I came across a very interesting image from Arnold Newman of Pablo Picasso. Newman was fascinated by Picasso’s expression and as a result cropped out a large majority of the original image. This is a perfect example of how cropping the image can generate a different sense of meaning, in Picasso’s expression I see mystery, a feeling of hiding and an element of pain. This I simply don’t feel can be noticed without the crop.